Travellers to Zimbabwe who are coming from infected countries
require a yellow fever vaccination certificate. Precautions against
Hepatitis A, and rabies are also recommended. Other risks include
typhoid, polio and bilharzia; a high prevalence of AIDS/HIV exists.
There is a risk of malaria all year in most of the country,
particularly in the Zambezi Valley, Victoria Falls, Hwange National
Park and in the Eastern Highlands; the risk is very small in Harare
and Bulawayo. Mosquitoes are chloroquine resistant. Precautions
against mosquito bites should be taken to avoid any number of
mosquito-borne diseases. Cholera outbreaks occur usually during the
rainy season when flooding and contamination of water sources takes
place. Rapidly declining health standards are also responsible for
the world's lowest life expectancy according to WHO, and a
breakdown in the water distribution system, especially in Harare.
Visitors are advised to take food and hygiene precautions. The
standard of tap water in urban areas is considered low, and bottled
water is available. The current economic instability has led to
shortages of medication in public hospitals, and many staff are on
strike; it is advisable to bring a supply of personal medication.
Medical insurance is essential. Private clinics expect cash payment
and medical costs can be high.